New: see the full article online here. If it doesn’t come up, go to the home page and search again.
Abraham Emmit labeled her “an ill natured, scolding, cursing, swearing, thieving servant Woman.
I’ve been following Eleanor Ferrell began during my work with the Women’s Runaway Clothing Database. This project catalogs 1,000 runaway indentured servants and enslaved women from 1750-1790 and their over 6,000 garments. In combing through almost 100 different eighteenth century newspapers to populate the database, I found approximately forty women who ran away more than once. Even with searchable digitized databases, without cataloging the individual women, finding these multiple elopements could rely only on sheer chance.
Eleanor ran away at least six times, for which I’ve found four advertisements. Below is a map that tracks where Eleanor lived during her servitude and the dates of her elopements, built from information given in advertisements for her return.
The table below compares the garments she wore for the various elopements. The garments in bold indicate that these might be the same garment still in Eleanor’s possession during different elopements. Women who ran away repeatedly allow us to study replacement of clothing among the working class (including procurement through theft) as well as what was worn during different seasons. The texts “had on…” below indicate what language was used in the runaway advertisement, perhaps underlining the difference between items she may have taken and those that may have belonged to Eleanor.
|July 23, 1761||May 22, 1762||June 28, 1762||August 30, 1763|
|“Had on and took with”||“Had on”||“Had on”||“Had on”|
|Gown – cross-barred dark Worsted GownShort gowns (3) – calicoShifts (3)
Apron (3) – good, speckled
Apron – white
Petticoat – red
Petticoat – striped
Petticoat – white flannel
Stockings – blue worsted with white clocks
Shoes – leather
Shoes – Yellow stuff with red binding, new
Buckles – mismatched
Caps – several
Handkerchiefs – 2 silk, plus others
Mittens – black silk
Bonnet – black silk
|Cardinal Cloak – black silk, lined with silk, gimp trim
Gown – dark chintz, with red Flowers
Apron – gauze, with broad squares
Handkerchief – lawn
Bonnet – “fashionable”
|Short Gown – calicoe
Skirt – red
Apron – Check
|Gown – coarse calico, with dark coloured cuffs
Bed gown – spotted calico
Petticoat – white, with a calico border
Petticoat – striped Linsey
Shoes – White ticking
Stockings – Green Worsted
Bonnet – black Silk, with Gimp round the edge.